5 kWh Lithium batteries per kW photovoltaic

At an fast increase of photovoltaic, it will be soon necessary to store electric power and to feed the power equable in the power grid.



There are storage power plants, but their capacity is very limited. The power plant group Kaprun can produce 330 MW electricity, but has only 113 MW for pumping the water up. This is designed to pump up all the night with excess electric power and to deliver at midday high power. At much photovoltaic, it's exactly the opposit.

  The limits of electric power storage


At about 80 GW photovoltaic in Germany are the existing storage power plants not enough. Starting with this stage, additional storage capacity like batteries has to be built up. A usefull extension of battery capacity would be 5 kWh batteries per installed kW photovoltaic to create a day night balancing. The world wide resources for lead are not suitable for this task. The world market of lead becomes messed by around 60 GWh batteries for 60 million electric scooters in China. The quantity of photovoltaic to replace 50 million barrel crude oil a day requires 40,000 GWh batteries for the day night balancing. For luck 1 kWh lithium iron phosphat requires only 40 g lithium per kWh battery capacity. In the 40,000 GWh batteries will be 1.6 million tons lithium used.

  Hydrogen economy + Methanol economy


Beyond a day night balancing is battery storage not usefull. Starting with 250 GW photovoltaic in Germany will be the combined hydrogen methanol economy the only usefull application for excess electricity.

Editorial of PEGE
Important questions about the future, reports and possible solutions. PEGE as an independent analyst of facts and designer of long term strategies outside of short sighted populisms.


Lithium
Lithium has the best expectations to solve our problems at our mobility and the day/night balancing of a photovoltaic oriented power supply.




  Energy for the future


Who has energy can solve problems. Examples over methods and magnitudes for the future energy supply of mankind.

Replace crude oil by electric power
The amount of electric power to replace an unit of fossile energy can, depending on application, be complete different.


Replace crude oil by photovoltaic
From all methods to produce energy is only with photovoltaic the magnitude reachable necessary to solve the problems of humanity.


Scenarios of energy development
Description for the 4 different szenarios of photovoltaik world market development. Explanation for the increasing amount of electric power to replace 1 litre of crude oil.


Photovoltaic 30% yearly increase
Against the prognosis of the Energy Watch Group, reduction of the crude oil production to 39 million barrels a day in 2030, is a 30% increase of the photovoltaic world market not enough.


Photovoltaic world production 50% yearly plus
This szenario shows until 2020 a 50% yearly increase of production and later of 20% per year. To avoid an oil crisis would be a more fast increase better.


War economy: extreme increase of photovoltaic world production
From 2010 to 2014 radical increase of the photovoltaic world production with 200% per year until 1000 GW yearly production is reached, further extension with 10% per year.


Rationality 1992
What would be, if starting with 1992, the year I invented the GEMINI house, the photovoltaic world production would have been increased by 60% per year?


Difference 2018
The prognosis for the crude oil production in 2018 is 63 million barrel per day. How much we pay for this, how hard we are hit by a recession, decides the politic today.


Biomass in the change of time
Biomass is in the present seen as a supplier for energy, but this will change in the future to a supplier of raw material requiring energy for processing.


Biomass wood
The wood ofen will become a luxury, instead of 4,3 kWh heat by burning, we will invest 10 kWh electric power to produce 1,65 methanol from 1 kg wood.


Dessert and dry areas
A sea water desalination system supplied by solar electric power near the shore needs for the photovoltaic only 0.8% of the surface to irrigate with 500mm water a year.


Storage of electric power
The biggest problem of photovoltaic is to bring offer and demand together. Study about possible solutions.


CO2 Carbon dioxide reduction
It is not enough to reduce the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. It is necessary to reduce the CO2 contained in the atmosphere to the amount in 1900.




Context description:  future energy electric power supply use electricity usage event events date time month 2 Feb February winter